The feared object e. Historical Context Time must also be taken into account, as what is considered abnormal at one time in one culture may be normal another time, even in the same culture. For example, a man wearing a dress and high heels may be considered socially abnormal as society would not expect it, whereas this is expected of women With this definition, it is necessary to consider: i The degree to which a norm is violated, ii the importance of that norm, iii and the value attached by the social group to different sorts of violation, e.
Classical conditioning has been said to account for the development of phobias. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Diagnosis raises issues of medical and ethical integrity because of financial and professional links with pharmaceutical companies and insurance companies.
For example, one hundred years ago, pregnancy outside of marriage was considered a sign of mental illness and some women were institutionalised, whereas now this is not the case Age and Gender Different people can behave in the same way and for some will be normal and others abnormal, depending on age and gender and sometimes other factors.
Limitations: However, this definition fails to distinguish between desirable and undesirable behavior. The medical profession uses various labels eg.
Their behavior may be incomprehensible to others or make others feel threatened or uncomfortable.
Unchecked id impulses: If id impulses are unchecked they may be expressed in self-destructive and immoral behavior. The basic assumptions are: Maladaptive behavior is caused by faulty and irrational cognitions.
Learning environments can reinforce re: operant conditioning problematic behaviors. The argument has been whether or not psychology should influence the due course of the law, which has been criticized for allowing dangerous people to avoid punishment.
Explanations of Abnormality Behavioral Behaviorists believe that our actions are determined largely by the experiences we have in life, rather than by underlying pathology of unconscious forces.