An analysis of the hundred years war

The seven remaining chapters hone the argument that war encouraged the development of national institutions and identity by examining topics such as peacemaking efforts, shifting concepts of kingship, and the English occupation of France; they also elaborate the picture of social and political change introduced within the first three chapters by examining the experiences of groups including common soldiers, women, and prisoners of war.

Cost of the hundred years war

But before they moved forward, a fascinating and seemingly extraordinary act took place: each man knelt — archers and men-at-arms alike — kissed the ground, and took a little earth in his mouth. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, These break away from a straightforward chronological narrative, instead exploring social and institutional changes introduced by a sequence of key episodes within the war. Green provides a stimulating account of the changes that the struggle for control of France caused, and he does so while finding the much sought after, but rarely achieved, balance between accessibility and scholarly rigor. The Black Prince, however, was not content merely to orchestrate and witness the destruction, he wished to determine its exact extent, and so he brought officials such as Wingfield with him to calculate the precise cost to the French treasury. England, France and Christendom. As cities came into their own as centers of military strength and economic power, their inhabitants developed strong civic identities that exercised as much and sometimes more influence over their actions and policies than their sense of affiliation to a single, national community. In addition, Edward, his nobles, and later his son—dubbed "The Black Prince"—led several great armed raids aimed at plundering, terrorizing and destroying French land, in order to enrich themselves and undermine the Valois king. The French military leaders soon realized the archer was the only effective when fighting a pitched battle. For their part, peasants and others in the lower tiers of society were not inclined to accept such victimization without a fight. Edward II and Philip V had tried to solve it by the nomination of seneschals or governors for Guyenne who were acceptable to them both, and the appointment of the Genoese Antonio Pessagno and later of Amaury de Craon to this post proved successful for a time. Richard then became too tyrannical for his subjects and was deposed, while Charles went insane. For anyone seeking to understand the human side of the Hundred Years War, and the role that this conflict played in shaping France and England into modern states, this book should be the standard introduction for many years to come.

Hutchinson, Harold F. As a result, authority did not rest in any one person, but in all of the lords together.

effects of the hundred years war

The chapter on women and war, for example, serves as a particularly valuable presentation of the latest research on issues such as sexual violence during the war, and the contributions that women, aside from Joan of Arc, made on the battlefield and behind the scenes at court. Vale, M.

hundred years war causes

The Genoese crossbowmen attacked the English, but were too tired due to the long day's march and because of an earlier rainstorm, their crossbow strings were loose. Consequently, the English army in Gascony disbanded. Commodities such as grains, dairy products, dyes and salt would be shipped into Bordeaux via the Dordogne and Garonne Rivers and the merchants were charged a customs fee for these products.

who won the hundred years war

Philip responded with a demand for a declaration of liege homage and was, moreover, determined not to restore certain lands for which Edward had asked. This, and the English government ceding Maine to achieve the truce caused an outcry in England.

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Hundred Years’ War facts: who fought in it, why did it start, how long did it last?